The Kenya Ministry of Health reported HIV prevalence to be 5.6% in 2015. However, within key and priority populations, the HIV burden is greater – 15% for both female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) and as high as 30% amongst adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) population group. Kenya has scaled up various HIV prevention interventions including HIV testing and counselling, condom promotion and distribution, voluntary medical male circumcision, ART for people living with HIV, and behaviour change programmes for most at risk populations. Additionally, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an ARV drug taken to protect an uninfected individual from acquiring HIV has been recognized as among the most effective drugs for HIV prevention, within approval by FDA granted and randomised clinical trials reporting an efficacy rate of over 80% for individuals who are at a substantial continuous risk of HIV acquisition and take oral PrEP daily as recommended. Though shown to be effective, it is not yet clear what effect introducing this drug into HIV prevention programs will have on the behaviour of those who use it. There are also questions on what is needed at health infrastructure, human resource, demand creation, community engagement and end-user support level to deliver PrEP to those who need it and have them use it effectively for HIV prevention, and most importantly integration in the already robust Kenya HIV Prevention programs.
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